Mixed martial arts MMA – martial arts which are a combination of many techniques, schools and styles of martial arts. MMA is a full contact fight with shock and control equipment in the rack ( clinching ) and on the floor ( stalls ). The term «Mixed Martial Arts» was proposed in 1993 by Rick Blum, President Battlecade.
Further, MMA developed in different countries in different ways. In the US, the popularity of MMA began to increase in 1993, when California businessman Art Davey and head of the Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu school Roryon Gracie organized the first Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) tournament held in Denver, Colorado. The tournament of eight participants, which had a prize fund for the winner of 50 thousand dollars, included representatives of boxing, savat, sumo, karate and wrestling. To the surprise of the 2,800 spectators present in the hall, and another 86,000 20 who bought a paid broadcast via cable television, the Brazilian athlete Royce Gracie became the winner of the tournament, considerably inferior to all his opponents in height and weight and winning thanks to suffocating and painful techniques, little known in the That time. Subsequently, Gracie won two more UFC tournaments than widely popularized Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu – one of the key components in the training of many MMA fighters nowadays.
Originally promoted as a competition to find the most effective martial arts for real unarmed combat, competitors from different fighting styles were pitted against one another in contests with relatively few rules. Later, individual fighters employed multiple martial arts into their style. MMA promoters were pressured to adopt additional rules to increase competitors’ safety, to comply with sport regulations and to broaden mainstream acceptance of the sport. Following these changes, the sport has seen increased popularity with a pay-per-view business that rivals boxing and professional wrestling.